Like the other electric motors, the two main parts of the DC motor are the rotor and the stator, 1.5 horsepower 56h frame plus two parts that provide the correct operation of the motor: the switch and the pair of brushes.
The principle of operation of this type of electric motor is the most basic of the motors, taking place in the following way: the semicircles form the commutator, whereas the parallelepiped structures with the circular base are the brushes.
The stator has a winding between its poles which is continuous, so that when it is energized, it becomes a fixed polarity electromagnet. The rotor is also powered by a secondary source called the exciter through the brushes, and when energized, it also becomes an electromagnet.
However, with the ability to rotate, the rotor moves, so that its south pole searches for the north pole of the stator and vice versa. Once this equilibrium situation is achieved, the movement would interrupt, since the opposing poles would be at their closest point in the circular path. However, when the poles are precisely in that position, the semicircles of the commutator, which followed the turn, change brushes and with that the current has its opposite direction.